Previously considered a structural component of tumors, stroma has also emerged as an important mediator of immune function in cancer. In particular, stromal cells help shape the microenvironment of the organs they inhabit and help to modulate immune cell populations.
Tumor stroma is comprised of multiple cell lineages and subsets. These include endothelial cells, mesenchymal stromal cells and pericytes.
The tumour microenvironment (TME) is a critical and heterogeneous environment that plays an essential role in the development of tumors. Its composition is dominated by cells from the stroma compartment, including endothelial, mesenchymal and pericytes.
It is now widely recognized that these cells play a critical role in immunomodulation of both autoimmune diseases and cancer. Their function is far beyond that of traditional structural and nutritional support, demonstrating the wide scope for their potential therapeutic role in both these disorders.
However, it is still unclear how stromal cells differentiate in the TME from normal stromal cells and whether they are derived from the same fibroblast lineage as epithelial tumour cells. In the present study, we tested this hypothesis by combining expression data from ovarian, breast and colon cancer samples obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) with laser-capture microdissection of tumour cell and stromal fractions.
We found that the ESTIMATE-predicted tumour purity was strongly correlated with both stromal and immune scores, although it was less correlated to pathology-based estimates of the percentage of stromal cells, hematoxylin-eosin-stained slides and DNA copy number. This suggests that the stromal signature captures some of the diversity of tumour-associated stroma across tumour types.
Tromal testing is one of the many tests used to determine a patient’s risk for developing gastrointestinal stromal tumor. This includes physical exams, blood work, GI tract imaging, and a host of other tests that are designed to detect and treat the disease if found. The best part is, treatment is usually very successful and often leads to a long and happy life. A few test results stand out as being especially noteworthy and should be considered when planning a course of action. A few of the most interesting include the following:
The above mentioned is just one of the tens of thousands of tests that may be performed on a patient during their cancer care journey. The results of this testing are then used to design a customized treatment plan that will get you where you want to go – healthy and well again.
The results of tromal testing are often complex. This is due to the heterogeneity of the stroma, as well as the number of different types of cells within it. The stroma is known to contain endothelial cells, mesenchymal stromal cells and pericytes. These cells play an important role in tumor microenvironment (TME) and help regulate immune cells within the TME. They also have important metabolic functions and can help support the growth of cancer cells.
The stromal cell compartment is a dynamic tissue that has recently been shown to have new roles beyond their traditional functions. For instance, they have been found to modulate antitumor immunity by enhancing the function of T cells and stimulating innate immune responses. They can also help control the development of a tumor by influencing the expression of tumor-related genes and by producing cytokines and other chemicals. These new roles for stromal cells have important implications for treating both autoimmune diseases and cancer.